I was sitting in the kitchen yesterday consulting the archives on 360 degree review initiatives and I put together this blog post.
360 degree feedbackused for performance management is the same as developmental feedback except that the employee's behavior feedback is shared with the supervisor, who uses this information when making a judgment of performance. Since supervisors see and use the 360 degree feedbackresults, performance management applications need to be relatively sophisticated because they potentially have substantial impact on an employee's career. Compared with development applications, performance management applications have higher requirements: Many people have issues with traditional performance reviews because they feel they are ineffective. The traditional review opens the door to bias and provides a narrow view of overall performance, especially when your organization operates in a remote capacity. 360-degree feedback creates a complete view of employee performance, leading to more accurate and fair reviews. One highly discrepant respondent, or outlier, in a 360 degree feedbackform can substantially skew the average score because there are often so few respondents. (An outlier gets its name from the concept that the unusual response falls a significant distance outside the range of the other scores.) Without discounting the outlier, the resulting score would not represent the collective intent of the multiple respondents. It would reflect a skewed score, which might be due to error intentionally created by one respondent. Once the 360 degree data has been processed there is this key step of “being OK with all of this”. If the data is generally positive this may not be hard (although sometimes the data is so much more positive than fits the self-identity that this is not guaranteed), but if there are negative bits then this can feel impossible. Of course you do not like key others not being impressed, how could you!? Many traditional 360-degree feedback instruments used for management and leadership assessment and development focus primarily on management and leadership behaviors and characteristics. Customers may be in a position to provide feedback on these instruments if they have had the opportunity to observe the target manager in his or her interactions with peers or direct reports. The 360-degree feedback review involves collecting feedback from the people an employee works with most frequently. This creates a more well-rounded view of the employee than just their interactions with their manager can provide.
In addition to the insufficient training organizations provide both people receiving feedback and people providing feedback, there are numerous ways raters go wrong. They may inflate ratings to make an employee look good. They may deflate ratings to make an individual look bad. They may informally band together to make the system artificially inflate everyone’s performance. Checks and balances must exist to prevent these pitfalls as well as training for the people who are providing the ratings. Because of legal requirements for performance appraisals, users of 360 degree feedbackthose who provide and those who receive itneed to be trained. Independent of legal requirements, employees need training in any new appraisal system. 360 degree feedbackmay call for more training than traditional systems because the new model is so different, though most employees easily understand the modest changes associated with redesigning a supervisory appraisal form. Organizing and delivering feedback through the 360-degree feedback process may seem long and cumbersome to some but the human and organizational benefits received from the process far outweigh any other concerns. Collecting 360-degree feedback throughout the year can help prepare for performance reviews. When an employee receives feedback year-round, they can incorporate it more quickly. With ongoing 360-degree feedback, employees can reflect on their year during performance review time. Plus, managers have a resource to recall what employees worked on throughout the year and see how they progressed. Looking into 360 appraisal
can be a time consuming process. Improved Feedback From More Sources
Open and clear communication sets responsibilities for all and provides the basis for correct accountability. While performance appraisals are an integral part of an organisation, doing them correctly is even more important. On completion of the 360 degree Feedback, a detailed report is presented to the recipients to help understand their strengths and weaknesses and build a development plan. The individual responses are, of course, kept confidential. They’re presented together along with others from the same respondent category(e.g. peers, subordinates, etc.) to preserve anonymity. Put simply, 360 feedback (also known as multi-rater feedback) is a feedback system where employees are rated by different members of their organization, across different levels of seniority, on certain competencies or behaviors. Feedback is gathered from an employee's colleagues, direct reports, manager(s) and sometimes even their clients. The goal is to gain a well-rounded view of employee performance by revealing areas of strength and any weaknesses from different perspectives. If the goal of the 360 is personal development, ratees should be able to select their raters. In this case, building a culture of feedback in the organization will be important. If the goal is performance evaluation, ratees should be chosen based on how close they work together with the rater. In this case, the 360 should be embedded into the performance management system. 360-degree feedback is a vital tool for enhancing the skillset of your workforce. Through reports, you can see exactly where an employee stands in your business – and how to develop them further. Without proper performance appraisals, you risk undervaluing your staff. They could be left feeling stunted or unfairly treated – which can lead up to tribunal claims, risking your brand-name and revenue. People need to feel in control of their destiny - that is why a clear understanding of 360 degree feedback system
is important to any forward thinking organisation.
A small business is a lot more personal than a large organization, but 360 degree feedback still helps individualize the relationship between managers and employees, and it ensures that managers are providing good feedback to every employee. Some 360 degree feedbackparticipants project blame when a whole situation is blamed on a person or a thing. This is where they are clearly not taking responsibility for their own situation. Very tricky, especially when others may indeed have acted out of line and are to blame for some stuff. The integrity of your process is critical though to make sure there is nothing significant they can realistically “blame”. Formal scoring of 360 degree feedbackgoes beyond simple spreadsheets and survey systems and uses the best available scientific methods to score surveys with small samples. Formal scoring systems correct predictable sources of bias, such as invalid respondents, and identify data errors like respondent collusion. An organization that fails to use a formal scoring method for 360 degree feedbackapplied to making performance management and pay decisions will regret this choice. Data errors will multiply and users will have no confidence in their behavior feedback. There must be differentiation, or a spread of scores, across the performance measures in a 360 appraisal if the results are to support pay decisions. These distinctions must be sufficient to make credible differential reward decisions. If all the scores are clustered at the top of range, the information is not useful, and reward decisions revert to nonperformance factors, such as politics, friendship, or popularity. You can go horribly wrong with 360 degree feedbackdata if you are not careful. Think about your audience and whether they are all going to be happiest with numbers or charts? With lots of detail or less? With more data or less? With full dense pages or more space? You know your people so simply match their needs. This part of the report can look very different if you are dealing with financial analysts in the City compared with curators at Christie’s and different again with supervisors in a retail environment. Keeping up with the latest developments regarding what is 360 degree feedback
is a pre-cursor to Increased employee motivation and building the link between performance and rewards. 360 Degree Feedback Data Is Right
When the information gleaned from 360 degree feedbackdoes not automatically fit the preexisting self-impressions because it is unexpected or unusual, the individual must process the information carefully (mindfully) to determine if it fits another category of how the individual views him- or herself or others. If not, a new category may be needed. This mindful processing includes making an attribution that explains the information. User surveys may be used to determine whether employees would feel comfortable using 360 degree feedbackfor appraisal and pay purposes. When participants see added value in this process and trust the results, they tend to recommend its use for performance appraisal and pay. A strong desire among employees to use the system to support appraisal and pay purposes is the most critical issue in process validation. The multi-rater nuanced nature of 360-degree feedback allows an individual to highlight professional behavior or weaknesses that they don’t notice, despite exhibiting them. They can then work to focus learning and development in those areas. The heart of any good employee experience is the ever-important experience that happens at the team level coupled with the one-on-one relationship between manager and employee. Employees join organizations, but they quit managers. 360 degree Performance Appraisals are the most effective, proven strategy to both understand the micro employee experience as well as providing actionable feedback that can make a positive difference. If you give full privacy to participants, you may find that the very personwho most “needs” 360 degree feedbackis the one who avoids all support, does not share their data with anyone and claims to use their own personal coach to work it through. You and your more senior leaders will not know what is in that report and you will wonder what could have happened. The specificity/anonymity conundrum takes another turn when the idea of 360 feedback software
People can be upset from a 360 degree feedbackreview, but if they are working in a professional environment, particularly where the norm is emotional restraint and politeness, eg in the UK, they may of course think that they should not show their upsets. With traditional 360-degree feedback applications, individuals tend to interpret their results in relative isolation-either by themselves or with a feedback specialist. The development of a learning culture can be supported by expanding this interpretative process to include all members of a work group. Instead of each individual trying to make sense of his or her feedback in isolation, the group is involved in interpreting the feedback and taking action that supports development as a result of the feedback. Such a process promotes collective learning about each person's strengths and weaknesses as a group member. In a 360 degree assessment, a behavior (or behavioral statement) is a specific, measurable, and observable action that is associated with a competency and reflects an employee’s level of mastery within the competency. Giving and receiving feedback seem to be commodities hard to come by, both from the individual and the organizational perspective. And judging by the reactions of those who give and receive it, dealing with feedback constructively is not necessarily a talent we're born with. Rather, we need to learn and practice it. Feedback from the surveys may offer insight into an employee’s talents, which can open up possible career pathways for them. Managers can work with employees to map out possible promotion opportunities based on the data received from 360 surveys. Evaluating 360 degree feedback
can uncover issues that may be affecting employee performance. The 360 Degree Feedback Model
One way supervisors seek to soften the aversive impacts from open feedback sessions is to ask for anonymous input from work associates. Yet user surveys consistently indicate that those who provide written feedback to supervisors do not feel their input is truly anonymous. And because this sort of information goes to the person being assessed or to the supervisor, work associates are understandably reluctant to be totally honest. They worry that the assessee will find out what they said. When employees have started to develop actions plans based on their 360 degree feedback, an organization may think that the process is over. It is not. In fact, the most critical phase for long-term process success has just begun. The design team or the project administrator needs to examine process safeguards and to allow users to evaluate the process. The organization will want to know if the process met the design team objectives and served stakeholders, especially the employees, management, and the organizationwell. Any intervention needs commitment and buy-in and cannot work without it, so how do you get the support you need? Critical here is knowing that you will get the support and a solution that will work if you design it with your stakeholders. You can get extra insights appertaining to 360 degree review initiatives at this Wikipedia
link. Related Articles: Background Findings About 360-Degree feedback performance dimensions Background Information About 360-Degree evaluation technologies Background Insight With Regard To 360-Degree review objectives Extra Information On 360 degree evaluation expectations More Insight On 360-Degree evaluation projects Supplementary Information On 360-Degree review tools More Background Insight On 360 appraisal objectives